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Dynamics of carbon sequestration, nutrient interactions and managing calcium soil amendments

Recently I received an email asking some great questions about a variety of topics, so I responded in the video below. Here are the questions that are discussed:

1. In the podcast with David Johnson, Johnson said plants utilize only 11% of their energy from photosynthesis and the remaining are sent to feed bacteria. If I understand this properly, it means when soil and plant are not at optimal health, most of the photosynthates are sent to the roots. But in the course “The Principles and Science of Developing Regenerative Agriculture Ecosystems”, it is explained that as plant health increases the amount of photosynthates sent to roots increases. Can you explain the difference of perspectives?

2. Phosphorus and zinc are said to be antagonistic, even in Mulder’s chart, but the course “Precision Ag Plant Nutrition Management” mentioned them as being synergistic. Please explain.

3. I am confused about gypsum and lime applications. In one of the emails from Carey Reams, they said we should use less gypsum and more lime, but AEA has recommended using more gypsum. Could you please explain further?

4. In a Podcast with Arden Andersen, Andersen says Carey Reams used to grow crops in soils where magnesium dominated calcium. In some soils where magnesium occupies more than 40% CEC, it is difficult to bring the CEC of calcium to the desired value. But Andersen didn’t explain how. Could you please explain?

5. You say most of the time we can control thrips with nutrition, what are the control measure being used?

6. At what crop stage should phosphorus be applied and in which form?

7. Is nutrient management for fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda) the same as other lepidopteran larvae?

8. Can you further explain the nutritional management to control Downy and Powdery Mildew in Cucurbits?

Thank you to Venu for sending in these questions.